Personality Disorders in the Church: Paranoid Personality Disorder (Part 4 of 5)

In my research on cults—and in my own experience as a former cult member—I have learned that many cult leaders evidence traits of undiagnosed personality disorders.

What is a personality disorder?

According to the Mayo Clinic:

“A personality disorder is a type of mental illness in which you have trouble perceiving and relating to situations and to people — including yourself. In general, having a personality disorder means you have a rigid and unhealthy pattern of thinking and behaving no matter what the situation. This leads to significant problems and limitations in relationships, social encounters, work and school. In some cases, you may not realize that you have a personality disorder because your way of thinking and behaving seems natural to you, and you may blame others for the challenges you face.”

I think most of us can agree that if a church leader has an untreated personality disorder it could make him or her more prone to commit spiritual abuse. And that would be good to know, wouldn’t it?

In two previous posts we discussed Narcissistic Personality Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder.

paranoid personality disorderParanoid Personality Disorder rounds out the top three personality disorders most likely to be found in a cult leader or spiritually abusive pastor. Indeed, the DSM-IV says that some individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder “may be perceived as ‘fanatics’ and form tightly knit ‘cults’ or groups with others who share their paranoid belief systems.” When coupled with Narcissistic Personality Disorder or Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder, as PPD often is, you have a recipe for an ideal cult leader.

It’s important for me to state that I am not a clinician. I know only what I have read, learned in psychology classes, or experienced for 25 years as a member of a Bible-cult run by a man who was later professionally diagnosed with several personality disorders. But I think what I describe below will sound all too familiar for many victims of spiritual abuse. In addition, the account of King Saul in the Old Testament is a textbook example of PPD.

The purpose of this post—and of this series—is to raise awareness about a little-discussed area so that church members and church leaders can avoid following a mentally ill leader who confuses his or her mental illness with the character and will of God.

Paranoid Personality Disorder

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV), the “essential feature of Paranoid Personality Disorder is a pattern of pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent.” It occurs in only about 2.5% of the general population, but as we discussed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder, folks with these disorders tend to seek out leadership roles because of their need to control people and circumstances.

For a full description of this disorder, you can read the relevant section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. All material in quotes below is from the DSM-IV.

Cult Leaders and Paranoid Personality Disorder

How might this disorder manifest itself in the church? Consider the following fifteen symptoms:

1.) Overreaction to perceived or minimal offenses – Individuals with PPD fixate on past grievances and refuse to forgive or forget. The ultimate expression of this is when they equate offense against their person with an offense against Almighty God. This explains why “they are quick to counterattack and react with anger to perceived insults.” In addition, “Because of their quickness to counterattack in response to the threats they perceive around them, they may be litigious and frequently become involved in legal disputes.”

eraser paranoia

Kristin Nador, Creative Commons

2.) Revisionist history – Individuals with PPD revise their entire perception of a person if that person questions their character or leadership, or—the ultimate betrayal!—leaves their church. Years of positive memories may be altered to correlate with the new image of a sinister person rather than a friend, colleague, or associate. This is why cult leaders can shun and ostracize former members so easily: they are “of the devil,” “of the world,” “a rebel,” or some other thought-stopping term which erases an entire life and replaces it with a paranoid label.

3.) Followers must be perfect – Any deviation from perfect obedience to the leader results in suspicion, accusations, and confrontation. The leader actively looks for disloyalty and perceives obedience flaws or imperfect performance as rebellion against themselves or God.

4.) Inability to confide or delegate – The leader mistrusts others and will not confide personal information. He or she often refuses to delegate tasks because of fear that the follower is untrustworthy, either in character or in ability.

5.) Sympathetic paranoia – Individuals with PPD “read hidden meanings that are demeaning or threatening into benign remarks or events.” For this reason, followers begin to feel on edge, as if they are walking on eggshells. Even their most careful and considerate remarks can be twisted out of context by the leader, read-into, or analyzed for disrespect. This creates a climate of sympathetic paranoia.

6.) Inability to laugh at oneself or accept criticism – Individuals with PPD show a marked lack of humor when it comes to their own reputation or character. They may poke fun at others—even at themselves—but if you try to poke fun at their appearance or performance, watch out. They will lash out at you or silence you. While they dump buckets of criticism on their followers, they refuse to receive a drop of unsolicited input.

top of the heap

Keith Jones, Creative Commons

7.) Obsessed with reputation and status – Because individuals with PPD are constantly vigilant against the malevolent intentions of others, they also feel the need to constantly remind their followers how gifted and unique they are—and how far ahead they are of their followers.

8.) Trivial, circumstantial, or fabricated evidence of betrayal – Individuals with PPD need no actual evidence of malevolent intent to accuse someone else of wrongdoing. All they need is the normal stuff of life and the mystical connections made in their own head or visited upon them by “angels” or scripture to fabricate conspiracy theories.

9.) Conspiracy theories – Church leaders with PPD construct elaborate conspiracy theories which may include other churches, local law enforcement, media, ex-members, Satanists, and every other Christian except the members of their own small group. Anyone outside the group must not be trusted.

10.) Sarcasm and hostility toward outsiders – Leaders with PPD tend to treat outsiders with disdain, scorn, or patronizing rhetoric. Understandably, outsiders react against this abuse which then creates a self-fulfilling prophecy for the leader with PPD. “Their combative and suspicious nature may elicit a hostile response in others, which then serves to confirm their original expectations.”

11.) Need for control and autonomy – As with the mightiest dictators, so with the pettiest: “Because individuals with PPD lack trust in others, they have an excessive need to be self-sufficient and a strong sense of autonomy. They also need to have a high degree of control over those around them.” This results in surveillance in the church, networks of “spies” who are loyal to the leader, invasion of privacy, forced confessions for attitudinal or thought sins, and public humiliation and punishment of offenders.

paranoid personality disorder12.) Stereotypes – Because individuals with PPD exert so much energy creating their conspiracy theories, they have little room to appreciate outsiders or invest in getting to know them. “Individuals with this disorder seek to confirm their preconceived negative notions regarding people or situations they encounter, attributing malevolent motivations to others that are projections of their own fears… [they also] tend to develop negative stereotypes of others, particularly those from population groups distinct from their own.”

13.) Rigidity – Individuals with PPD may demonstrate inflexibility in relationships or routine. They do this unconsciously as a safety mechanism, staying in the middle of previously marked channels which they have deemed safe enough. “They are often rigid, critical of others, and unable to collaborate.”

14.) Grandiose and Hierarchical – At the root of PPD is a distorted attempt to mandate personal security and significance. We all need both, but leaders with PPD try to carve out their own kingdoms in which they alone sit on the throne with everyone else paying them homage. “They may exhibit thinly hidden, unrealistic grandiose fantasies [and] are often attuned to issues of power and rank.”

15.) Simplistic, Fanatical, and Cult-like – “Attracted by simplistic formulations of the world, they are often wary of ambiguous situations. They may be perceived as ‘fanatics’ and form tightly knit ‘cults’ or groups with others who share their paranoid belief systems.”


In the last post in this series, we’ll talk about how the church should relate to leaders who evidence personality disorders. As we’ll see, there is a whole spectrum of response based on the level of severity, degree of awareness, and willingness to receive help.

Related Posts:

1.) A Sensitive Topic: Personality Disorders in the Church (Part 1 of 5)
2.) Personality Disorders in the Church: Narcissistic Personality Disorder (Part 2 of 5)
3.) Personality Disorders in the Church: Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (Part 3 of 5)
4.) Personality Disorders in the Church: Paranoid  Personality Disorder (Part 4 of 5)
5.) Personality Disorders in the Church: How to Deal with Them (Part 5 of 5)
Self-Deprecating Narcissists: Why Some Christian Narcissists Appear Humble
Why We Tolerate Psychotic Pastors

7 comments on “Personality Disorders in the Church: Paranoid Personality Disorder (Part 4 of 5)

  1. A couple questions regarding the series in general (perhaps you can address in the conclusion?). I am curious whether we should see such personality disorders as an illness, personality trait, cultural byproduct, demonic attack, intentional sin, sinful bondage, fruit of sin, or some mixture of these. Also, how can we apply what we learn in addressing personality disorders in spiritual leaders to other disorders/illnesses they may have, and in general loving and helping our brothers and sisters (not necessarily in leadership) who struggle with them. Thanks!

    • Great questions, John H. I do hope to address most of these in the final post, though as to the first set of questions re: cause, it probably will remain something of a mystery. I think the Bible has something to say about this, but I can’t be definitive. I can only offer some thoughts and suggestions and get the conversation rolling.

  2. Thank you so much AGAIN for a most helpful post! We will be looking out for part 5 as this is something we are clueless how to deal with.

  3. Everything I read hit the mark, for me. I was fooled by a man for years, somewhat easily for our contact was long-distance. Thinking I’d fallen in love with who I thought he was, we eventually married. It didn’t take long before every one of the systems of All of the disorders came home as well. By the time I finally got him to a psychologist, and he did nothing but lie, I simply could not stand another moment of his abusive, blame-blame-blame nonsense. I left him there. Before he could walk home, bound by ‘Duty to Protect,’ the doctor phoned me. She said, “Multiple personalities that are theologians are the most dangerous schizophrenics. You ARE going to get hurt!” She was right! Within a few days, the so-called husband punched me in the mouth, knowing I’d had a previous jaw surgery, previous neck surgery, years of orthodontic work, and was living with a literally broken neck. He got to leave me that day by way of a cop car ride to jail, while I, after another neck surgery and many tmj replacement surgeries, lost both of my jaw joints. Today, I live with constant, excruciating nerve pain and I’ve lost almost all of my social life. Loneliness accompanies my daily life, now. Meanwhile, after years have past since I told him that I could (or would try to) forgive him, although I never wanted him in my presence again, IF he would finally get and send me proof of therapy and medications, two things recommended he get by doctors that judges insisted he consult with following other arrests, I’ve learned. He’s never sent that proof, but is, I discover, as phony as ever. I note his facebook posts, recently, merely because he contacted one of my family members, searching for me. He’s announced another marriage, yet only decided to contact me to ask rather or not we’re still married, months after he’s announced his new “blessed” marriage. Being very musically talented, very well read, and preaching love of Jesus, of God, can be very charming. It’s how he charmed, and fooled, me. Sooo, now I have a dilemma. Do I make an effort to contact this currently happy, if unreal, new bride to tell her what she’s up against? Or, do I spare her and myself more stress. On the one hand, I suffer terribly for my foolish belief in this very VERY ill man, and the last thing I need is more stress. On the other hand, what if he kills this next woman and I hadn’t warned her? I just don’t know what to do. My family tells me to NOT contact him at all, but again…. that just feels wrong. May I ask, “What would you do?” Thank you for your research. Thank you for your time. Jill J.

    • Dear Jill,

      I’m embarrassed to only be replying now. I’ve taken a break from blogging and haven’t been keeping up with the comments or emails. I’m playing catch-up now. I recommend you talk to the counselors at Hope for the Heart in Plano, Texas. They do free phone counseling and can listen to the whole story and give you good advice–better than I could give you, since I am not a counselor. You can find them at http://www.hopefortheheart.org, or call them at 1.800.488.HOPE. I wish you all the best.

  4. I am not sure of the format on the topic of personality disorders in the church. Are you simply writing regarding people with personality disorders joining a church in general? It has been my observation from my experiences within the Christian community that a great many assembly members display their personality disorders like a flashing neon sign. What I am uncomfortable with is that most church leaders never encourage a member with a personality disorder to either talk about it or seek professional help. In fact a great many of the Christian church leaders in my area (Rhode Island) seem to favor keeping a member wrapped in their personality disorder because it is easier to manipulate and control them. Let me share this; I attended a Christian church for a while that handed out prayer request slips as the members entered for services. On several occasions I would be asked to collect the prayer requests and bring them to the Pastor’s office after the service. A lot of the slips would be unfolded and I could read them. I was astonished on what the requests revealed about a member’s misguided thinking and unwarranted fears regarding Christianity. I offered the Pastor the suggestion that he should read these request in order to gain insight on how to guide them back on course with the truth. His response was, ” Myself and the elders and deacons pray over the basket and then throw the slips in the trash.” This to me is a serious wrong because I believe God caused the member’s disorder to emerge so the church leaders could help them. However, as I have observed most church leaders that I have encountered control and manipulate their members by their disorders. They manipulate them into obsessive volunteering, tithing and a host of other behaviors. One Pastor (I am not judging the individual I am critiquing the behavior) who was obsessed with performing baptisms on Easter Sunday. If he had no requests for baptism a few weeks before Easter he would get the ear of a woman in his church who was an obsessive “doer”. The Pastor would sadly share with her that it looks like he won’t be able to hold baptisms this Easter and this would trigger to go out and practically drag homeless people, and people with personality disorders regarding “belonging” in to be baptized. It mattered not if they understood baptism or even Christianity. Just sharing my observations. God bless!

    • Jim, I think your observations are spot-on. It’s a tragedy (and, I would argue, a sin of omission) for the pastor and elders not to even take the time to read the prayer requests of the congregation. How very sad. I agree that a lot of dysfunction in the church is used to manipulate and control members into serving, giving, etc. So very sad.

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